My Old ACW Rules as Used by Our Club in the Late 70's
My tattered copy of the original "Iron Brigade" ruleset

I have used OCR technology and about a days worth of labor in order to put the original hand typed version into HTML. The original version came out to 20 single spaced pages and a grand total of 106 copies were printed. I sold several copies myself, and TSR bought 80 which they sold in the shop they had at the time in Lake Geneva. In this HTML version I have made changes to match my hand scribbled notes in the margins of my personal copy, so this version reflects the rules set, as used by our Fort Lauderdale, Florida based club back in the mid to late 70s.

by Mike Willegal
Now I sit me in my seat
Any pray for something fit to eat
If this damn stuff my stomach break,
I pray that God my soul will take.
-Soldiers of the Civil War
Copyright Aug 1, 1976, Lancer Games


The Civil War is probably the best war to fight in miniature if you are restricted to the Western Hemisphere. The amount of information is great and there are plenty of battles to refight, both big and small. The uniforms varied considerably in the early part of the war and some rivaled those in Europe. The basic weapon was still the infantryman with a gun, although now it was rifled. Some say that the war was fought from behind trees, but anyone who has heard of such battles as Sharpsburg and Gettysburg will know better. Try these rules and see for yourself if skirmish lines were the real answer.

These rules were developed with historical realism in mind so they may seem complex at first, but after a few battles one should be able to play quite quickly. A calculator is recommended for use in small arms fire, but one can play without one. When first playing the game keep the forces manageable, with maybe five regiments and a battery of artillery on each side. If one wants to get into a battle quickly, he should only bother reading Chapter I - XII, as the rest of the rules are not vital, and can be added at a later date if more variety is needed. Get your men out and give your enemy a fight to remember


A. The ground scale is l" equals 25 yards. This scale gives the best relationship between the range of weapons, speed of movement and time per turn.

B. The time scale is 1 turn equals 2 1/2 minutes. This time period gives ample movement and fire that is dangerous enough to kill.

C. One miniature figure equals 20 men in real life. This can be explained by just saying that it is the standard wargame scale and allows for the proper frontage for 20-25mm figures.

D. One cannon represents the 4-6 cannon that would be in the standard battery in the armies involved.

E. One officer represents one officer and his staff. One orderly represents himself.


A. The basic infantry unit is a regiment and it should consist of 12-24 men at the beginning of a battle. These men represent the average Civil War unit. The men should be put in groups of 4 men on 2" long stands. The unit can fight up to 2 ranks deep which is called close order. When they are put in a single line they are said to be in open order and when the stands are 2" apart the men are in skirmish order.

B. The basic cavalry unit is also a regiment and should be organized exactly like an infantry regiment except that the figures should be put on stands that are 1 1/2" long and hold 2 figures.

C. The basic artillery unit is the battery which is represented by l cannon and 2 men on one stand and 1 limber, 2 horses and 2 men on another stand. These stands should have a frontage of 1 1/2". The number of actual cannon, horses, limbers and men in the batteries should be kept track of on a piece of paper. The battery should contain about 4-6 guns. For each 2 guns (known as 1 section), one shot can be fired and there should be 2 men, 2 horses and 2 limbers that can be destroyed. Guns themselves are destroyed in groups of 2 guns (1 section). Horse artillery should have up to twice as many horses. Machine guns should be treated as field artillery.

D. The depth of stands are not listed because they should be as narrow as possible with the figures used. If figures smaller or larger than 20mm - 25mm are used the distances in the game should be reduced accordingly.


A. The movement of each type of unit is listed below over different conditions. If there are woods on rough ground, the movement should be slowed to dense wood movement. Any other combinations of terrain should be impassable or the speed decided by the players or referee. Cavalry, mounted infantry and artillery should be restricted to rough ground speed if they pass over fences or similar obstacles. Fences that are torn down do not count against movement.

B. Units that change their facing lose some of their movement. This is found by measuring the farthest distance any part of the unit has to move to get into the new position. In all cases the movement of a unit is the movement of the part that moved the farthest.

C. Infantry may pass through infantry without penalty. Infantry may pass through artillery and cavalry only if the cavalry or artillery doesn't move or fire. Artillery and cavalry may not pass through other units without causing them to become disorganized.

D. Units may occupy any area where they can stand unhindered.

E. Units cross fordable rivers at 1/2 rough ground speed. Those units that cross may not fire muzzle loading rifles.

F. Movement speeds

dense WOODS
normal WOODS



charge bonus
Cavalry/Mounted Infantry






charge bonus

Horse Art.

Field Art.

Heavy Art & Wagons

Light Art

* in column formation only

G. Infantry may do any one of the following each turn:

H. Artillery may do some of the following according to their classification. Heavy artillery may do any 2, field or light may do any 3 and horse artillery may do any 4 of the following things. Note that they must be done in logical order.

I. Single stands may march in column by turning the stands sideways and moving them that way. Extra casualties will occur if hit from front or rear only, unless there are other columns within 4".

J. Units on foot can sidestep at l/2 distance.


A. Find the weapon factor from the chart below.



Rifle Musket









C. Add to or subtract from the number obtained above using the table below.
Irregulars firing
Target is mounted troops
Elite troops firing
Green troops firing
Target behind soft cover
Crack troops firing
Unit firing moved (less than 1/2 speed)
Each battery firing on firing unit*
Sharpshooters firing
Firing unit in skirmish order

Firing on unit open order

* every 2 for regular
* every 3 for elite
* every 4 for crack

round fractions up

C. Multiply the result obtained by the firing factor below.
No. of Men
No. of Men
No. of Men
D. Multiply again if any of the following conditions exist by the factor set forth below.
Target lying down
Target under hard cover
Disorganized unit firing
Target in trenches
Target in skirmish order (includes artillery)
Target 3-4 ranks deep within 4" front to rear 1.5
Target 5-6 ranks deep within 4" front to rear 1.8
Flanking fire (45 degrees)
Firing unit moved more than 1/2 speed
E. The result is the number of men dead. If the number is not exactly even roll a 10 sided die to see of you get the part of a man. Example: If the result is 2.36 you need to roll a 4 or less to get 3 men. If it is 2.95, 3 men are dead without a roll and if it is a 2.05 you need a roll of 1 to get 3 men.


A. For each section, find the proper weapon at the proper range on the artillery chart. The upper value is for all fire except counter-battery, Which is the lower value. To that value add or subtract the following. Each section (2 guns) may not have a factor of less than 1 after addition and subtraction.
Confederates firing
Firing units elite
Target prone
Firing unit green
Firing unit crack
irregulars firing
Firing at cavalry
Target behind soft cover
All sections of same battery firing at same target*
Artillery moved this turn


Target behind hard cover

Being fired upon by artillery

Target in open order


Target in trenches

* +2 to total of all sections in battery

B. Add all sections firing at the same target together and multiply by modifiers that apply.
Disorganized unit firing
1/2 casualties (round off)
Flanking fire (30 degree8)
2 times
Target in skirmish order
1/2 casualties
Target 3-4 ranks within 4"
1/2 casualties
Target 5-6 ranks within 4"
1.8 times casualties
C. For each 20 factors one casualty is caused. If there are numbers not equaling 20, then roll a 20 sided die to see if the remainder is a kill.

D. For counter-battery fire follow the above procedure and if a hit is scored roll again on the following chart using a 10 sided die.
1-3 horse killed
4-5 man killed
6 horse and man killed
7-8 1 section destroyed
9 limber destroyed*
10 limber explodes-roll again*
* Subtract ammo in proportion to amount left and number of limbers in the battery.

E. Cannon effectiveness is given on the chart below for each one foot of range.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
6 lbr Smoothbore 12 5 4 4 3

field 9 4 4 3 2

12 lbr gun 1841 12 5 5 4 3 3

heavy 9 5 4 4 3 2

12 lbr howitzer 14 5 5 4

light 11 4 4 3

24 lbr howitzer 14 6 5 4

field 11 5 4 4

32 lbr howitzer 15 6 6 5 4

heavy 12 6 5 4 3

12 lbr gun (Nap.) 13 6 5 5 4 3

field 10 5 5 4 3 2

12 lbr Mt. How. 14 5 4

light 11 4 3

6 lbr Wiard rifle 12 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1
light 9 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
6 lbr Whitworth 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

light 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1

3" ordinance 7 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2

field 9 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2

10 lbr Parrot 11 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 1

field 8 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1

12 lbr Whitworth 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
field 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
14 lbr James 12 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 2

field 9 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1

20 lbr Parrot 12 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
heavy 9 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
6 lbr rifled gun 12 4 4 3 3 2

field 8 3 3 2 2 1

30 lbr Parrot 13 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2
heavy 9 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1
12 lbr Blakley 12 5 4 4 3 3

light 9 4 4 3 3 2

12 lbr Armstrong 11 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2

field 9 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 1

12 lbr Dalhgreen boat howitzer 13 5 4 3

light 10 4 3 3

12 lbr Wiard howitzer 12 5 4 3

light 10 4 4 3

30 lbr smoothbore 14 6 5 4 3

seige 10 5 4 4 3

40 lbr smoothbore 15 7 6 5 4 4 3

siege 11 6 5 4 4 3 2

5O lbr rifle 14 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2
siege 11 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2
70 lbr smoothbore 16 9 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2
siege* 12 9 8 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2
80 lbr rifle 15 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3
siege* 11 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2
100 lbr rifle 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3
siege* 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3
130 lbr smoothbore 17 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 3
siege* 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2
150 lbr rifle 16 10 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 3 3
Siege* 12 10 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3
200 lbr rifle 17 11 10 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 3
siege* 13 11 10 10 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 3
200 lbr smoothbore 18 11 10 9 9 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 3
siege* 14 10 9 9 8 8 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2
*These guns fire every other turn, but one shot is taken for each one gun instead of each 2. The guns are also destroyed one at a time.


A. Only breachloader type units can fire while crossing, rivers or while prone. These weapons include breachloaders, some kinds of pistols and repeaters. Grenades should also be allowed to do this. Note that units can't both fire their weapons and throw grenades in one turn.

B. The flank of a unit is measured from the center of the unit being fired upon to the center of the firing unit. It must be within 45 degrees to get the bonus for flanking fire.

C. One man must be left to man each 2 cannon (1 section) to enable one to fire or move them. These can be replaced by infantry or cavalry but they must subtract 3 when they fire.

D. Officers are killed just like anyone else if in the open but if they are with a unit roll on the following table for each 25% casualties the unit takes. Sharpshooters may shoot at officers even if they are with units.
1-4 officer unhurt
5 officer wounded and must be removed from table
6 officer killed- check morale for all units within 6"
E. Men inside stone buildings are in hard cover and men in wooden buildings are in soft cover. If the men inside a house take casualties from artillery the house is on fire if a 5 or 6 is rolled on a 6 sided die. If there are 2 figures present they may try to extinguish the fire if they roll 5 or 6 on a 6 sided die. Otherwise all men inside, mustleave the building losing any heavy equipment. Another way to destroy a house is to shoot at it using the counter-battery tables. If a hit is taken roll as you would have above if men were in it. A standard single story building burns down in 40 turns. Double the time of burning for each additional story or for an extra large house. Houses are worth 60 construction points (see section XIII).

F. Soft cover is anything that protects a man but doesn't fit into the definition of hard cover. Hard cover is a line of continuous, bullet-proof, protection. Examples are brick and stone walls, earth works ect.

G. Fire over your own troops

H. The maximum angle of fire for all units is 45 degrees.

I. Artillery units should be considered in skirmisher order only for rifle and MG fire. At all other times they should be considered to be in close order.

J. Artillery batteries who lose horses should lose movement in proportion to the percentage of horses killed.

K. People in hard cover with their heads down may not be hurt by small arms fire. Units may crawl at l" a turn to avoid getting hit. Units can move normally down trench lines with no effect from small arms fire.

L. Cavalry may shoot while mounted at 1/2 effect and at the next further range plus any other penalties or bonuses. Cavalry firing pistols or shotguns do not get this penalty.


A. Units check morale at the end of each turn whenever one of the following occur.

K. The basic morale value for troop is as follows:
21-35 irregular
16-31 green
32-40 regular
41-48 elite
49-60 crack
Note-The green and regulartroops can also be irregular. A unit with a morale of 25 does not have to be both green and irregular, but it can be.

C. To check morale roll a red and a green 6 sided die and if the red is larger deduct or if green is larger add the roll of 2 dice to the morale base. If the roll is equal do not add or subtract from the base. For crack troops just roll 1 dice to add or subtract and if the troops are green or irregular roll 3 dice + or -.

D.To the modified base number now add or subtract the following if they apply.
Unit has fired for 8 turns(fatigued)
Behind soft cover
Each enemy battery firing on unit*
Supported on both flanks
Enemy firing from soft cover
Broken or routed enemy
Each 15% casualties
unit in sight
Moved away from enemy this turn
Officer with unit
Unit moved forwar this turn
Broken unit within 6”
Charge bonus
Enemy firing from hard cover
Unit is behind hard cover
Mounted troops receiving small arms file
Charge bonus
Unit broken

Routed friendly unit within 12”

Enemy firing on flank

Men lost in previous melee by capture

Unit in skirmish formation


Enemy firing on rear of unit

Enemy in melee on flank or rear of unit

Unit is routed

* every 2 for regular
every 3 for elite
every 4 for crack

round all fractions up

E. Total the numbers and compare the result with the table below.
5 or less Rout - 4 dice for distance back
6-14 Broken - 3 dice for distance back
15-19 Disorganized - 2 dice for distance back
20-25 If advancing halts for 1 turn- if in open and not moving- back2"- no advance next turn
26-69 Good morale
70 and up Advance at least 3" and charge if possible unless behindhard cover or out of charge range of enemy.
F. For any unit that rolls a morale of 19 or less 1 die is also rolled to determine the direction of movement of each stand in the unit
1-2 Stand moves 30 degrees left of straight away from enemy.
3-4 Stand moves straight away from enemy.
5-6 Stand moves 30 degrees right of straight away from enemy.
Remember to roll distance and direction separately for each stand in retreating unit.

G. To reform a unit that has broken or routed you must do one of the following.

H. If a unit doesn't do one of the above it must move backward in a straight line every turn. The speed moved backward is the maximum distance possible +l for infantry and +2 for cavalry.

1. Once a unit has a chance to regain morale it must remain stationary gaining one step on morale for each turn it does so. The steps are routed, broken, disorganized and good. In the case of a unit whose stands are not touching it must move so all of its stands are touching before it can gain any morale.

J. Units that break or rout do not check morale for other units breaking or routing until next turn. Units that are required to check morale because of broken or routed units are not required to do so more than once each turn no matter how many are within checking distance. Units do not have to roll morale if broken or routed units have all of their stands touching.

K. Irregular units that break may not rally until an officer joins the unit. One friendly may act as an officer in rallying other units if it does nothing else the turns it acts as an officer. Irregular units that rout, may not rally.

L. Units that break or rout without a line of retreat surrender.

M. A unit that drops its weapons and surrenders may have 1/2 of the weapons picked up again and used by the enemy. These weapons may only be used until the existing ammo runs out. A unit that destroys its weapons 1 turn or more before surrendering may not have its weapons picked up by the enemy.

N. Units are moved immediately when they lose morale.

0. Only disorganized units can fire of all those who lose morale.

P. Artillery units that break lose their guns on a roll of 1-3, routing artillery lose there guns on a roll of 1-6, and disorganized units lose their guns if they roll 1-2 on a 6 sided die. Add one to the required roll if the guns are heavy and subtract one if they are horse artillery. Siege guns are automatically lost. Artillery that lose their guns leave the cannon half of the battery behind and are represented by the limber half. A unit should roll for every 2 guns, to see if they left them behind.

Q. Units are considered supported if there is a unit within 6" of the flank as long as the unit is within a 30 degree angle of the flank.

R. Crack and elite units don't roll morale if broken units are passing within 6" and crack units never roll for routed units within 12".

S. Some officers may have a range in which any unit within that range will be given a bonus to morale checks. This bonus may exceed the +5 normally given. This value should be decided upon before the game.

T. A unit for morale purposes is a section of a regiment or battery that is within supporting distance of all its parts. Example: A unit on a skirmish line is one unit but a regiment split into 2 parts on the opposite sides of a wood are considered 2 separate units.

U. Routed units throw down 1/2 of their weapons.


A. The sequence of events for each turn is shown below showing the time that units roll for charges.

  1. Orders are written and units are moved
  2. All units fire and then units engaged melee
  3. Morale is taken
  4. Units attempting to charge, roll on the charge table
  5. If the charge is successful, the defender rolls morale before melee.

B. Any unit within charge bonus range of the enemy and having good morale may roll for a charge at the end of a turn.

B. Units roll charges using the usual morale bonuses and penalties chart and the special charge bonus chart. After finding the morale of the unit consult the charge results table.
Charge Bonus Chart
+5 Each enemy battery firing on charged unit

Each friendly unit charging the same enemy unit

For each wave after 1st in a wave attack
+10 For charging a disorganized unit
+20 For charging flank or rear of enemy unit

For charging broken or routed unit

For charging unit in skirmish formation
Charge Results Table
0 or less Unit breaks
1-20 Unit is disorganized
21-50 Unit holds
51-60 Unit holds +5 on morale next turn
61-70 Melee* +5 on morale next turn
71-80 Melee* +10 on morale next turn
*Unit occupies enemy position if it retreats

D. The defender may fall back in front of an infantry charge counting the moving back as next turns move. However if this is done twice consecutively the defender fires at 1/2 stength. After the 3rd time the defender becomes disorganized.

E. If a unit charges but doesn't engage, next turn the unit must move less than 3" and must fire at 1/2 effect unless it doesn't move at all. If the unit moves more than 3" then the unit is considered to be be disorganized

F. Units that charge home must spend one turn reorganizing as in “E” above after the melee

G. When units charge home the melee takes place during the next melee phase.

H. When cavalry charges other mounted troops the charge table is used only to check bonuses, the charge is automatic. This does not count when mounted infantry are charging.

I. If the results on the charge table do not say melee, treat the units involved as if there were no charge roll except for a possible +5 on morale.

J. A wave attack is when 2 or more regiments are behind one another and within 6" of each other.

K. Units that get successfully charged while laying down must stand up as soon as the dice are rolled successfully.


A. Total the number of points worth of troops you have.
Type Unit Points Per Man
Any broken or routed .125
Skirmish order infantry .5
Skirmish order cavalry 1
Mounted infantry 1.5
Infantry 1
Cavalry 2
B. Multiply by the following if it applies.
Formed units fighting skirmishers 1.25
Unit charging 1.25
Attacking flank or rear 1.5
Defender in building 1.5
Disorganized unit .5
Defender in trenches .75
C. Total up the points and find the casualties.
Points Casualties Points Casualties
More points - split into 2 equal groups for casualties

D. Only those units on stands touching those of the enemys' counts and those stands who are directly behind these stands. Melees may only occur as a result of a charge.

E. After the melee casualties are determined, any 15% morale checks are taken or any other checks that would be taken normally are taken. If neither unit falls back, then morale is rolled until one side breaks from the melee. If no roll of the morale dice can result in either side retreating then the melee is continued next turn.

F. When one side falls back from the melee, a die is rolled to see if 4 figures (the color company) is captured by the winner. If the loser is disorganized a roll of 1 results in capture, broken 1-2, and a 1-4 results in capture if the loser routs. Captured men must be guarded on a 1:5 ratio and if the guards are killed, the surrendered men may fight again as soon as they return their regiments. Note that prisoners could be killed by fire directed at the guards, if all guards are killed


A. When cavalry or mounted infantry dismount, 1/4 of the men should be left behind or the horses will run off. Dismounted units must follow all the rules of infantry when dismounted.

B. Lancer units that are elite should receive +l points to melee and all lancers should cause -5 on morale to units getting attacked by them.


A. Sighting range in normal woods is 3" and 2" in dense woods.

B. Treat swamps as dense woods except for the limit to visibility. There should be no restrictions to normal visibility.

C. Units on the edge of woods are spotted only on the turn they fire or at 6" whichever happens first. A unit that is fired upon by a unit in a woods which was unobserved may only fire back on the same turn with a roll of 1 - 4 on a 6 sided die. Units in trenches may not be seen until the enemy is on the edge of the trench or if the unit fires. Units getting surprised by units in a trench or similar position must roll as above to respond the same turn.


A Each unit should be given specific orders at the beginning of the game.

B. These orders can only be changed if an officer is present with the unit. Officers can also increase the morale of the units they are with. Units advancing under orders in a hopeIess situation should be allowed to withdraw.

C. Orderlys may change the orders of a unit if instructions are given to him by an officer. Orderlys do not affect the morale of a unit.

D. If an officer is present the orders of an unit may be changed within the turn, but only after 1/4 of the move. A further 1/4 turn must take place before the unit obeys the new orders.


A. It takes 8 turns to dig into soft cover, 32 turns for hard cover, and 100 turns to dig ~renches. Double the time on extra hard ground and no digging is allowed on swampy ground. Artillery takes twice as long to dig in.

B. It takes 2 turns to tear down obstructions (fences, wood buildings, and walls) equal to the frontage of the unit involved when it is close order. It takes double the time to rebuild a wall or fence. the rebuilt object must be within 2" of the orginal site or it takes 1 extra turn for each 2" away.

C. Sap rollers give hard cover protection to anyone working behind them. A unit in a trench with sap rollers on the end can't be hit by flanking fire (small arms) unless the flanking unit can shoot over the sap rollers. Digging trenches behind sap rollers proceeds at a rate of l" per 20 turns. Sap rollers are worth 20 points for a defensive value.

D. Destroying cover by artillery fire is done by rolling for a hit by counter-battery fire if unoccupied or by hitting the men inside if occupied. If a hit is registered consult the following chart to find points of damage to cover. 1 point is given for each turn spent in construction of cover.
6 lbr -1
10 lbr -2
20 lbr -3
30 lbr -4
40 lbr -5
other lb. /10 + 1
Weights not listed should be rounded off and a 3" ordinance is equal to a 10 lbr. Each battery may work on a 2" area at one time.

E. Bridges and similar objects are destroyed in the same way as houses. Note that stone bridges don't burn. Their value should be similar to a house.

F. Units equipped with explosives may blow up any structure after spending 3 turns setting the charges. After a one turn delay everything is destroyed within a 3" diameter area unless a 6 is rolled which means that the fuses failed. One turn must be spent resetting them and another turn for delay before trying the charges again.

G. Mining . - Engineers can dig mines under enemy works in 7 days. A roll of 5-6 means the engineers are killed and the mine fails. A 3-4 means the enemy knows about the mine and can evacuate but the mine explodes. A 1 or 2 means that a 12" diameter area is destroyed.


A. Every type of unit has a basic ammunition supply which is represented by the number of turns in which a unit may fire before reloading at supply wagons. This number can vary by about 50% for each type of unit in the field, but in forts the supply can be almost without limits.
Ordinary small arms 12 turns
Breachloaders 8 turns
Repeaters 6 turns
Lt. and horse artillery 40 turns
Field artillery 30 turns
Heavy artillery 25 turns
Mountain artillery 50 turns
Machine guns 10 turns
B. To resupply the unit must start the turn next to an ammo scource and spend the whole turn next to it.

C. A wagon can carry 7 days of food for a unit or 4 resupplies of ammunition.


A. Wire takes 2 turns to move through the first time and 1 turn thereafter. The second rank can always fire when the front rank is moving through the wire.

B. Chevaux de Frise takes 1 turn to move through the first time and ~ move thereafter. The second rank can fire in this case also.


A. Balloons are represented by a stand used to raise and lower it. This can be just some wagons and several men to man it.

B. It takes 4 turns to raise or lower the balloon. Once the balloon stand is fired upon the balloon must descend and if the stand is destroyed or captured, the balloon is destroyed or captured.

C. Movement for a balloon stand is equal to a wagon although it can't move while the balloon is up. Remember the balloon can't fly in poor weather.


A. One railroad car holds one stand of troops. It takes 3 turns for infantry to dismount, the third turn the men are off the car, but disorganized. It takes cavalry 5 turns, the last two being disorganized, unless they leave their horses behind. In that case they dismount like infantry. Artillery takes 7 turns, the last 2 being disorganized.

B. Trains move up to 264" per turn, but on the move they stop they may move no more than 40". Trains may increase or decrease speed by 80" a turn.

C. Tracks are torn up in 7 turns with 2 men working per 1". If another 15 turns are used the tracks are totally unrepairable.

D. Repairing tracks (if possible) takes twice as long as destroying them.


A. On small assault craft one stand of men per craft is allowed. The crafts speed is 3" per turn. One turn is needed to load and unload. In the turns of loading and unloading the unit is disorganized. Units in boats get soft cover protection although hits from artillery will sink the boats.

B. Cavalry swims rivers at a speed of 2" per turn.


A. Rocket batteries have an effect on the morale of anyone that is shot at of -5.

B. Roll a 20 sided die and a 1-2 means one casualty is caused to units in the open or soft cover and a 1 on units under hard cover.


A. Visability is rolled on a die, 1-2, 2", 3-4 4", and 5-6 10”.

B. Subtract one basic unit on all rolls during the night.

C. The cost of changing facing is doubled at night.


A. Below is listed the ranges of morters and their chances to hit. The chance to hit is only modified by a -1 if the de£ender is in a dugout. Use a 20 sided die.

Min. Range Max. Range Roll to Hit
12 lbr. 15 40 1
24 lbr. 20 48 1
8" 25 89 1-2
10" 24 82 1-2
13" 35 172 1-3
B. Siegeguns and morters move half the speed of wagons and take 24 turns to load.

C. They take 2 nights or 1 day to emplace.


A. They move at the rate of heayy artillery when on mules and field artillery when not on the backs of the mules. When mounted on mules it takes one whole turn to limber or unlimber. Otherwise mountain artillery may do any 3 things each turn as does light artillery.

B. Mountain artillery should be allowed to move 1 1/2 times regular speed of heavy artillery when on mules and traveling over rough ground or through woods.


A. On land visibility is 280 when there has been no fighting. This visibility is reduced by 2*(square root of current visibility) whenever 5 units in a 40" by 40" area fire for 4 consecutive turns. The visibility can only go down to 2”. If there is not enough firing to reduce the visibility, it remains the same for 4 more turns and then starts to increase by 20" for every 4 turns.

B. At sea the visibility is always 704”.

C. Roll every day for weather.
2 Foggy visibility down by (square root of normal visibility)/2
3 Rainy 1/2 movement square root of normal visibility -2 on small arms fire
4 Cold -5 on morale
5-6 Good
7 Excellent +25% on visibility
8-9 Good
10 Hot -10 on morale
11 Rainy 1/2 movement square root of normal visibility -2 on small arms fire
12 Very rainy same as above but 1/4 movement because of mud after 6hours
D. If there is bad weather roll a 6 sided die every 6 hours and if a 6 comes up the weather clears, but if a 1 comes up the weather remains unchanged for three more days.

E. Four days of rain produces mud automatically.


A. Machine guns fire the same way as small arms fire except for the use of different tables.

B. First find the proper value for your gun at the range you are firing.
Range 0-5 6-10 11-20 21-30 31-40
Billingfield 2 1.5 1.25 1 .5
Vandenburg 1.5 1.25 1 .5 .25
Gatling 2.5 2 1.5 1 .5
Agar 1.5 1 .75 .5 .25
Williams 1 .75 .5 .25
C. Add or subtract the following:
-.5 Target behind soft cover
-1 Enemy battery firing on MG (subtract for each battery)
-1 Target in open order
+l Target is mounted troops
D. Multiply by any of the following that apply.
.5 Target under hard cover
.5 Disorganized unit firing
.5 Target in skirmish formatlon and artillery
1.5 Target 3-4 rank8 within 4"
1.8 Target 5-6 rank8 within 4"
2 Flanking fire (30 degrees)
2.5 Unit in trench
E. Using the same methods as in infantry compute the casualties.

F. Each time a MG fires roll to see if it jams. If it does a 1 or 2 will unjam the gun. Roll each turn after it gets jammed on a 6 sided die. The turn a MG Jams it may not fire, but on the turn it unjams it may fire.
Jams on a 6 Jams on a 5 or 6
Billingfield Gatling gun
Wllllams Agar MG
G. A MG may not fire and move in the same turn. Treat a MG in all other ways as fleld artlllery. When a unit rolls morale under MG flre -10.


A. Pontoon bridges are built by engineers at a rate of l" per 4 turns.


A. Movement for ships is 3" for each knot speed. The turning radius is 9" and ships 1ose 1 knot speed any turn in which they are without power. A ship may speed up 1 knot a turn and slow down 2.

B. To hit a ship use counter-battery fire. Then figure out whether the shell penatrates or not using the charts below. If the penatration of the shell equals the value for the armor for the ship it has penatrated
Value Guns
1/2 6 and 12 lbr smoothbores
1 10 lbr rifle and 24 lbr smoothbore
1 1/2 20 lbr rifle and 32 lbr smoothbore
2 30 lbr rifle and 40 lbr smoothbore
2 1/2 50 lbr rifle and 70 lbr smoothbore
3 80 lbr rifle
3 1/2 100 lbr rifle and 130 lbr smoothbore
4 1/2 200 lbr smoothbore
5 150 lbr rifle
6 1/2 200 lbr rifle
All of these values are considered to be at middle range and for each 1 foot over or under 1 should be added or subtracted to this value. Armor is 1 point for each 1" of iron, 10" of wood, 24" of cotton and should be totaled for each side of the ship if it differed. The point value for a ship is found by multiplying the draft, weight in tons and anmor factor together and dividing by 1000. Whenever a shell hits and penatrates, it puts its damage points (Chapter XIII) on the ship. When the ships value reaches 0 the ship sinks. Also when a ship is hit roll on the following table for special damage.
Torpedo Shell Damage
1 2 Ship Sinks
2 3 Draft hit ­ 4 feet from draft
3 4 Steering hit ­ steering jammed for 5 turns in present position

5-8 No effect

9 Gun knocked out ­ roll for which one
4 10 Double the damage
5 11 Stack hit ­ no power for 8 turns
6 12 Boiler damage ­ ship loses 3 knots of speed
C. If the shell doesn't penatrate only rolls of 3, 9, and 11 will result in special damage.

D. Every turn a ship is in a minefield it must roll for a torpedo hit. A 5 or 6 means that a torpedo has exploded, and you must roll on the special chart above using a six sided die. The point damage of torpedos can be from 20 - 50 or more points. For spar torpedos use the torpedo chart and damage is similar to torpedos.

E. For ramming use the chart below. Be sure to have the draft of ships listed before starting the game. Switch charts if wooden ships ram an iron one and -2 from draft loss if the rammer has a ram.
Speed Target Damage Ramming Ship Damage
1-3 2 feet from draft 1 foot draft destroyed
4-6 7 feet from draft 2 feet draft destroyed
7-9 12 feet draft 4 feet draft destroyed
10 or more 16 feet draft 6 feet draft destroyed
Whenever more than 5 feet of draft is destroyed the ship must roll on the torpedo special damage chart above. When a ship loses all of its draft it sinks.

F. For infantry to get into assault craft from transports it takes 3 turns and a maximum of 2 boats may be loaded at one time.


A. Speed on the mapboard will vary according to the type of units, terrain and scale on the map so average speed will be listed over generally favorable terrain and the referee should decide upon the slowing of speed due to poor terrain.
Wagons and heavy equipment 15 miles a day
Artillery and infantry 20 miles a day
Cavalry,horse artillery and mounted infantry 30 miles a day
Once a week a unit should be able to increase its movement by 50% but any rolls that day in combat should be at a penalty.

B. Units should be within 40 miles of a supply center or speed should be reduced by 10 miles a day unless food is available in supply wagons. All ammo should be carried in supply wagons.

C. The production and replacement procedure outlined below is highly imaginary, but may have a place in your strategic games.

D. Special refers to anything other than a combat unit. Each side should have some resources of each type at the beginning of the game.

E. New units start from where the men came from. Instead of taking new units old units may be reinforced. Two old units may be put up to full strength for each new unit that could be created. There is a maximum of 28 men per unit and 6 cannon per battery. When an old unit is reinforced, it loses battle experience in proportion to the % of new troops in the unit.

F. Trains increase speed by 5x, but take time to load and unload equal to 1/5th of one days movement. Building trains cost 1 supply and 1 equipment and takes one week. RR tracks cost one supply and one equipment and takes 1,000 men working for ten miles in one week. Rebuilding industry costs 2 supply and 2 industry for 2 weeks.

G. Ships speed can be computed by figuring the distance a ship could travel in the time span needed. Ironclads take 2 weeks to be made and all ships are treated as specials (see part D). Transports can supply 10,000 or transport 2,000 men.

H. Units gain experience by the number of battles they have been successful in.
1 - 4 regular
5 - 9 elite
10 or more crack
I. At the start of the game each side can only have a certain % of their troops above average. Consult the table below.
Special small arms
Horse artillery(must be elite)
Special units


Min. of lO%
Rifled cannon
Min. of 10%


The armies of this period consisted mainly of infantry, so there shouldn't be much of the other arms. Perhaps one battery of artillery per five regiments of infantry would be good. Cavalry shouldn't even be present except for maybe a regiment or two. Of course one can have special cavalry battles. Confederates artillery should consist of mainly four gun batteries, while the Union ones should be mostly six gun batteries. One does not need to remount already mounted units if one doesn't want to although some changes may have to be made to the rules.